miercuri, 15 iunie 2011

Constanţa - clădiri de cult

Dobrogea este pamantul romanesc cu cel mai mare contrast de populatii, etnii, religii si obiceiuri. Ca si alt tinut care astazi nu mai este in componenta Romaniei, Bugeacul, a fost timp de sute de ani un colt al Imperiului Otoman expus invaziilor dar totodata, aflat la Dunare si mare, deschis comunicatiilor si comertului. Au fost colonizati in Dobrogea pana si nemti (precum la Malcoci), iar nordul provinciei mai are o populatie de rusi lipoveni sau ucrainieni.
Oglinda a acestei diversitati, la Constanta gasiti 4 cladiri de cult impunatoare, corepsunzand a 4 religii: musulmana, iudaica, crestin ortodoxa si catolica.
Moscheea cea mare a fost construita in timpul domniei lui Carol I, in 1910-1912, ca un semn de pretuire si respect pentru comunitatea musulmana din Dobrogea care nu a fost asuprita dupa Razboiul de Independenta. De fapt la Expozitia Regala Jubiliara din 1906 ce marca 40 de ani de la urcarea pe tron a lui Carol I, pavilionul Dobrogei era in forma de ... moschee. Se pare ca romanii au fost foarte decomplexati fata de minoritatea musulmana, stiind probabil ca Imperiul Otoman nu mai avea cum sa puna in pericol iesirea Romaniei la mare ci doar eventual... Bulgaria.
Cladirea are atat elemente orientale (stuc, ceramica, faianta) cat si neoromanesti, intr-o simbolica imbinare reusita de arhitectul Victor Stephanescu (arhitectul bisericii Anglicane din Bucuresti). Constanta mai are si alte moschei, mai vechi si mai mici.
O alta comunitate vechi si importanta a Constantei sunt evreii. La inceputul secolului 20 a fost construita Sinagoga Mare. Din nefericire, comunitatea evreiasca a decazut si la fel ca si la Bucuresti sau alte orase, sinagoga este in stare proasta. De fapt la Constanta situatia e chiar foarte grava, acoperisul lacasului de cult fiind cazut iar monumentul fiind amenintat cu disparitia.
Sute de ani in urma, inaintea venirii turcilor, Dobrogea era crestina, ortodoxa. A redevenit dupa 1877. Imediat (1883), a inceput constructia unei impunatoare catedrale in stil neobizantin, dupa planurile arhitectilor Alexandru Orascu (autorul Universitatii de la Bucuresti) si Benes. Decoraţia interioară: arh. Ion Mincu, fondatorul stilului arhitectural neoromânesc. Pictura, superba, este de George Demetrescu Mirea. Hramul: Sfintii Petru si Pavel. Oare de ce nu a fost ales Hramul Sfantului Andrei, crestinatorul Scitiei Minor si, extrapoland, al tuturor mealugurilor romane?
Constanta are si o Biserica Catolica impresionanta, numita Sfantul Anton de Padova, construita in perioada interbelica. Este o minunata imitatie a bisericilor florentine medievale, dupa modelul carora a fost construita si Biserica Italiana din Bucuresti.
Pentru a infatisa aceste minunatii, am facut o exceptie de la regula mea de a pune maxim 3 poze per postare.

Constanţa - places of worship

Dobrogea is the Romanian region with the most diversity: ethnic, religious, folklore. Like another European region, today no longer part of Romania, the Budjak, Dobrogea was for centuries a corner of the Ottoman Empire. It was in the path of major foreign invasions but also a commercial zone, close to the Danube and the Black Sea.
Mirror of this diversity, Constanța has 4 impressive worship buildings corresponding to 4 religions: Muslim, Jewish, Christian Orthodox and Catholic.
The Great Mosque was built in the reign of King Carol I in 1910-1912. It was a sign of respect to the Muslim population of Dobrogea. After the War of Independance (1877-1878) they were well treated and in fact Dobrogea was represented by a mosque at the 40 Years Jubilee in 1906. Romanians had no complex towards the Muslim minority, they knew the Ottoman Empire would never again be strong enough to challenge Romania. The southern neighbour was now Bulgaria and they did have for some time their eyes on the whole Dobrogea.
The building has oriental decorations (stucco, ceramic) and Neo-romanian architectural details. This symbolic combination was performed by architect Victor Stephanescu, who also built the Anglican church in Bucharest. Contanța also has other smaller and older mosques.
Another old comunity in Constanța are the Jews. The Great Synagogue was built at the beginning of the 20th century. Unfortunately the Jewish Community shrank and like in other Romanian cities, the Synagogue is now in poor shape.
Hundreds of years ago, before the arrival of the Ottomans, Dobrogea was Christian Orthodox. It regained this satus after 1877 and very quickly, in 1883, the foundations were laid to an impressive cathedral. It was build in Neo-byzantine style by Alexandru Orăscu (who also built the Bucharest University) and Benes. Interior design: the founder of the Neoromanian architectural style, Ion Mincu. It was painted beautifully by George Demetrescu Mirea. Patron saints: Peter and Paul. Saint Andrew would have been a more logical choice: according to Christian tradition he baptised the population of Scythia Minor, the ancient name for Dobrogea.
Constanța also has a beautiful Catholic Cathedral: Saint Anthony of Padova, built between the World Wars. It is an exquisite imitation of medieval florentine churches. The Italian Church in Bucharest is another fine example.
I made a derogation from the 3 pictures rule that I follow so that I could show you this aspect of Constanţa.




Niciun comentariu:

Trimiteți un comentariu